8 Things to Memorize in Pediatrics

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It always pays to memorize the following in pediatrics.

Heart Rate

New born 120-140 / min
Infant (less than 1 year) 80-120 / min
Up to 5 years 75-120 / min
5-15 years 70-110 / min

Most common causes of tachycardia in pediatrics are

(1) Fever

(2) Anemia

Respiratory Rate

New born 30-60 / min
Infant (less than 1 year) 20-40 / min
1-3 years 20-30 / min
4-10 years 15-25 / min
Over 10 years 15-20 / min

Blood Pressure

(Systolic = at 6 years it is 100mmHg, add 2.5 mmHg/year after 6)                    

(Diastolic = age in years+60)

New born 70/40 mmHg

(35-60mmHg by flush method)

Infant (less than 1 year) 80/55 mmHg
Up to 5 years 90/60 mmHg
5-15 years 100-110/70 mmHg

Temperature

(Active=Increase temperature by 10c)

(Place thermometer in armpit for 2 min)

Normal temperature 97.50 F – 99.50 F

Fronto-Occipital Circumference (FOC)

At birth = 35cm

First 3 months = 6cm rise

Next 3 months = 3cm rise

Next 3 months = 2cm rise

At 1 year = 47cm

2,3,5 years = 1,1,1 cm rise

Rule of 0.5 (after 5th year) = 6 years to 12 years = 51 + 0.5cm/year 

(i.e. at 6years=51.5 

at 12 years = 54/55cm)

New born 35cm
3 months 41cm
6 months 44cm
9 months 46cm
1 year 47cm
2 years 49cm
3 years 50cm
5 years 51cm
6 years 51.5cm
7 years 52cm
8 years 52.5cm
9 years 53cm
10 years 53.5cm
11 years 54cm
12 years 54-55cm

Length/Height

At birth = 50cm

Within 1st year = 25cm rise

1st to 2nd year = 10cm rise

2nd to 3rd year = 10cm rise

 Formula = (From 2-12 years [age in yearsx6]+77 cm)

My Rule of 6 (after 3rd year) = 4 years to 12 years = 95 + 6cm / year

(i.e. at 4 years = 101cm , at 12 years = 149cm)

New born 50 cm
1 year 75 cm
2 years 85 cm
3 years 95 cm
4 years 101 cm
5 years 107 cm
6 years 113 cm
7 years 119 cm
8 years 125 cm
9 years 131 cm
10 years 137 cm
11 years 143 cm
12 years 149 cm

Weight

At birth = 2.5-3.5 kg

3-12 months = age in months + 9

                                     2

1-6 years = [age in years x 2]+8

 

7-12 years = [age in years x 7]-5

                                    2

Rule of 7

New born 7 lbs 2.5-3.5 kg
6 months 14 lbs 7.5 kg
1 year 21 lbs 10 kg
2 years 28 lbs 12 kg
3.5 years 35 lbs 15 kg
7 years 49 lbs 22 kg
10 years 70 lbs 32.5 kg
11 years 82 lbs 36 kg
12 years 89 lbs 39.5 kg

Dentition

Dentition is variable

  • First deciduous tooth eruption = 6 months
  • Deciduous teeth eruption (20 teeth) completed by = 2.5 years
  • Shedding of deciduous teeth = 6 years to 12 years
  • Permanent teeth appearance = 6 years to 22 years
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The writer enjoys medical education and has special interest in community medicine.