Prevention of Typhoid Fever

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Enteric group of fever (typhoid fever) includes typhoid and para typhoid (A, B and C ) fever, which are bacterial infections characterized in their typical form by continuous fever, serve headache, enlargement of spleen, diarrhea and sometimes rose spots appearing on the trunk.

Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission

Bacteria are passed in the feces and urine of infected persons, who may be patients or carriers showing no sign of disease. When these bacteria are ingested infection occurs. Transmission may occur by direct or indirect contact with such feces or urine in any of the following ways:

a. Directly by the hands of patient, a convalescent, or a carrier

b. Flies transmitting germs from uncovered excreta or latrines and urinals to kitchens

c. Careless passage of feces or urine directly into streams or rivers or in the neighborhoods of streams, river and walls

d. Sitting latrines, cesspits, septic tanks and streams or rivers

e. Dust

Preventive Measures

These comprise strict adherence to general sanitary measure keeping in view the mode of transmission. Strict water and food discipline should be observed.

a. Protection of water supplies from pollution and sterilization by chlorination or by boiling

b. Proper sanitary disposal of human excreta

c. Latrines and refuse bins should be cleaned regularly

d. Strict fly control by instituting anti fly measures be adopted

e. Protection of food from files and dust

f. Sterilize milk by boiling or pasteurization

g. Properly supervise processing, preparation and serving of all foods especially those that are earth raw, vegetables as well as fruits be thoroughly washed in drinking water before consumption

h. Prohibit eating and drinking from unauthorized sources and places which do not conform to proper sanitary standards

i. Maintain high standard of kitchen hygiene and personal cleanliness of personal employed in cooking or handling food

j. Evacuation of suspected cases to the nearest hospital

k. Carryout TAB inoculation of all individuals and their families once every year

l. Anyone who has suffered from infectious hepatitis, enteric fever or dysentery should not be employed as cooks or cook in the kitchen for at least six months after their discharge from hospital

 

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The writer enjoys medical education and has special interest in community medicine.